College of Letters & Sciences
UW-Whitewater Film Studies



EXTREME LONG SHOT (ELS) — a shot of a character's full figure at a great distance, including a panoramic view of the surroundings

Cinematography, Still 1

LONG SHOT (LS) — a shot that includes a character's full figure as well as his or her surroundings STILL 2
MEDIUM SHOT (MS) — a shot that captures a figure from the waist up STILL 3
CLOSE-UP (CU) — a shot filled primarily by the subject's face, including little to no background STILL 4
EXTREME CLOSE-UP (ECU) — a shot filled entirely by a small part of the subject's body STILL 5


Camera Angle

HIGH ANGLE — the camera looks down at the subject STILL 6
LOW ANGLE — the camera looks up at the subject STILL 7
CANTED ANGLE — a shot in which the framing is tipped, or no longer horizontal STILL 8


Mobile Framing

PAN — the camera scans horizontally from a fixed axis point

TILT — the camera scans vertically from a fixed axis point

TRACK — the camera follows the action, travelling along a parallel path to capture the movement

Lenses & Focus

LONG LENS (telephoto lens) — a long focal length lens used to capture subjects at a distance. This lens foreshortens the distance between background and foreground.  
WIDE LENS — a short focal length lens that emphasizes the distance between foreground and background still 10
DEEP FOCUS — objects in the background and foreground are equally in focus still 11
SHALLOW FOCUS — only objects in one plane are in focus, while others are out of focus still 12
RACK FOCUS — focus shifts from one plane to another within a shot

ZOOM — changes focal length to create motion towards or away from the subject


Process Shots

SUPERIMPOSITION — images are overlaid within the frame

DIGITAL ANIMATION — images created or modified by computer software

TITLE CARDS — text from outside the world of the narrative appearing on screen to supply information to the audience